Batteries Digest/Batteries/Lithium Chemistry

Business, Primary, Secondary,Materials


Lithium Technology Corporation and GAIA Akkumalatorenwerke GmbH will supply prototype 36/42-Volt batteries for BMW. The battery, which will undergo testing in the U.S. and Europe, delivers 7-8 kW of power, with a capacity of 27 Ah, pulse power capability of 200 Amps for starting, a low operating temperature of -300C and an estimated life of 8 years. The stacked flat cells are housed in a standard European automotive battery casing with dimensions of 7x7.5x12. The battery is designed to meet the 42 Volt battery specifications of the Astor project to test advanced energy storage systems. (07-02BD76-3)


Rechargeable Batteries Based on Intercalation in Graphite

This is a unique concept in constructing a battery which can be thermally recharged at temperatures approaching 100 0C. The cell would be built with a graphite cathode and a graphite anode surrounded by lithium bromide dissolved in a nonaqueous solvent and separated by an ion-exchange membrane impermeable to bromine. When charged, the anode would be loaded with lithium intercalated into the structure, and free bromine would be in the compartment surrounding the cathode. When discharging, the bromine would be intecalated into the cathode, and the lithium would come out of the anode into the solvent. On charge, the reverse process could be forced by an external charger or an external potential with external heat applied to the cathode, driving the bromine out and forcing the lithium back into the anode. (12-01 BD69-13-14)

NASA Tech Briefs
February 2001, pp. 46-47

Lithium Technology Corporation, a rechargeable lithium battery manufacturer, has engaged Colebroke Capital, Inc. to assist in the strategic repositioning of the Company. The planning will include a reorientation of the relationship with llion Technology Corporation of New Zealand. The Company is weighing a number of alternatives to commercialize its large format flat cells, process know-how and large battery assemblies.(12-01 BD69-11)

Lithium Technology Corporation (LTC) announces merger with GAIA, a German Lithium-polymer battery company. In other news, Dr. Andrew (Jim) Manning was recently elected Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Technical Officer. David J. Cade, LTCs chairman and CEO said, ...Jim Manning has been the key driver in applying our innovative flat cell technology to large battery applications in the automobile, renewable power and certain niche markets. To date, no company has successfully commercialized lithium-based rechargeable batteries in these rapidly emerging markets. (03-02 BD72-9)

Primary (not rechargeable)

Lithium-manganese dioxide

PSC BATT&FC(07-02BD76-8-11)

LiMNO2AnyCell(February2002 BD71-6)

The X-38: Low Cost, High Tech Space Rescue

Lithium-sulfur dioxide

Secondary (rechargeable)


  Christophe Pilot of Avicenne Development reports that the number of battery packs to be shipped will double. He stated, The total value of the market of protection circuits in these packs will be about US$600 million by 2006. Believing in this market growth, Alcatel of France and MPower Batteries Ltd. signed an agreement for the design of innovative chips for battery packs to be used in applications such as cell phones, private radios, PDAs and digital cameras.

Plainview Batteries partners with L.G. Chemical to provide Lithium-ion battery packs. Plainview Batteries now offers Lithium-ion packs with cells in series, parallel, and series/parallel, supplying those packs with nominal Voltages of 3.7-14.8 Volts and capacities of 2-10 Ah, all with built-in protection circuits.(12-01 BD69-11)


Q: Is the Lithium-ion the ideal battery?(07-02BD76-13-15)

PSC BATT&FC(07-02BD76-8-11)

Lithium-ion Is No Longer Terrestrially Bound (Jan. 2002: BD70-3)

Lithium-ion Tutorial(12-01 BD69-8-9)

Protective Solid Electrolyte Films for Thin Li-Ion Cells

Thin films of LiCO3 are proposed as thin passivating layers to prolong the shelf life and increase the specific energy of thin Lithium-ion cells. The material has been found to afford excellent passivation against reactions between electrolytes and anodes and provide excellent stability against oxidation at high Voltage.(07-02BD76-12)

NASA Tech Briefs
March 2002, p. 50


Alkyl Pyrocorbonate Electrolyte Additives
for Li-ion Cells

The additives promote the formation of protective and conductive solid/electrolyte interface on the carbon anodes. The inteface is intended to exert a chemically protective effect on both the anode and the electrolytes, yet remain conductive to provide improved performance at low temperatures. The decomposition products of the additives promotes the formation of protective and conductive solid/electrolyte interfaces and contributes to the cycle life of the anodes.

NASA Tech Briefs
May 2002. pp. 37-38
Fluorinated Alkyl Carbonates as Cosolvents
in Li-ion Cells

This work is directed to extend the low temperature operation. Fluorinated solvents are perceived to lead to safer cells because of their low flammability. The partially fluorinated carbonate cosolvents used in electrolytes exhibited high capacities at temperatures from -20 0C to -40 0C for both high rates of charge and discharge. The results suggest contributions to high specific energy, long lifetime and low temperature operation.

NASA Tech Briefs
May 2002, pp38-39

Lithium-ion polymer

Lithium-ion polymer Poised for Market Recovery (Feb. 2002, BD71-4)


Lithium-metal polymer

Advanced LMP Battery Technology for HEVs

Avestor has produced a 48 Volt, 70 Ah Lithium-metal polymer battery for use in hybrid autos. Price, cycle life, calendar life and safety information were not presented.(07-02BD76-12)

Battery Power Products & Technology
May 2002, p.1


Delphi develops a new Lithium-metal polymer battery. This battery has achieved specific power greater than 1400 Watts/kg and specific energy greater than 47 Watt-hours/kg. This battery technology delivers high power over a wide range of battery states of charge and temperatures. Operating temperature is from -400 to 700 Celsius. Delphi feels the battery will provide a solution for the hybrid vehicle. The superior charge and discharge efficiency will enable high rates of regenerative brake energy recovery without large power conversion losses. (06-02BD75-8)


Altair Nanotechnologies, Inc. has independent tests confirmed on their proprietary Li4Ti5O12 nanomaterials. Dr. K.M. Abraham tested the nanomaterials and found achievements in Lithium-ion charging and discharging rates to be 10 to 100 times higher when compared to materials commercially available today. The Li4Ti5O12-based lithium batteries have the ability to undergo charge/discharge cycles with little fade in capacity for thousands of cycles. Lithium Titanate Spinel is a specific crystalline phase of lithium titanate with a formula of Li4Ti5O12, which in Altairs process is nearly 100 % pure. (12-01 BD69-11)


Valence Technology, Inc. forms joint development agreement with Wistron Corporation. Wistron, a large global ODM/OEM supplier for the PC industry, and Valence will investigate opportunities for the use of Valencesphosphate batteries within Wistron products.(12-01 BD69-11-12)


Altair Nanotechnologies Inc.s nano-sized lithium titanate spinel is being evaluated by global battery developers. We look forward to the near-future development of prototype batteries utilizing our lithium titanate spinel, commented Altairs president Dr. William P. Long. Through material testing thus far, it has been determined that non-sized lithium titanate spinel exhibits charge and discharge rates that are 10 to 100 times higher than with traditional materials commercially available today. (05-02 BD74-8)