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Batteries/Manufacturing 070308
 (February 2007)    Self-Assembling Batteries
                    From Technology Review, February 16, 2007

Materials inherently have short range attractive or repulsive properties which may be exploited to allow self assembly of devices. MIT researchers have selected lithium cobalt oxide and graphite microbeads with a liquid electrolyte which aggregate the lithium onto an electrode while repelling the graphite which aggregates onto an opposite electrode with the electrolyte sandwiched between. This is done on a very small scale; yet applications for microbatteries which self-assemble may be part of a future successful application. Research continues to allow replacing the liquid electrolyte with polymer and increase understanding of short range forces.
 (March 2004) Philips LithyleneTM Technology offers manufacture of batteries for operation  space.  In the fabrication of the battery there is no need of outside pressure to keep electrodes together.  Batteries assembled by this technology  can operate under vacuum conditions, but they do not generate a magnetic signal owing to lack of loop current.   The design and creation of any free form battery can be done with any electrochemistry. Information on this technology is found on the website: