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Photovoltaics/Business 070307
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 (July 2006) Sanyo adds multi-crystal silicon-based wafers to its product offering.  In fiscal year 2007, the company will sell multi-crystal silicon based photovoltaic modules which will have an increased 15 to 16 percent efficiency. By 2008, they plan to have the conversion  efficiency even higher at 18 percent, by building on their  hybrid technology of amorphous and crystalline.  By 2010, the company plans to have wafers thinner than 150 micrometers and cell conversion efficiency higher than 22 percent.*

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 (March 2006) Solar Style. Inc., develops solar powered cell phone charger. The new SC003 charger can use any indoor or outdoor light source,  without using traditional electricity.   Measuring roughly 3.5” x 2.5” x 1”, the device can charge cell phones, PDAs, MP3 players, gaming devices and digital cameras.  The unit also has four connector cables which fit most Motorola, Nokia, Samsung and Sony Ericsson cell phones.
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 (Feb 2006) California Public Utilities Commission approves California Solar Initiative  (CSI).  The Initiative provides about $3 billion in incentives from 2007 to 2014 to develop and promote solar power.  The aim of the program is to reduce the cost of solar technology for the State’s consumers.  The CSI is the largest program in the United States and globally, is second only to Germany which has a larger $$$  initiative.  The California  incentive should add about 3,000 megaWatts of solar production.

Some of the companies which have been noted in the news to benefit from the increased solar production and installation are: Energy Conversion Devices, Evergreen Solar, Inc., Suntech Power Holdings Co., SunPower Corp and  XSunX, Inc.
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 (Jan 2006)Suntech Power Holdings Co. Ltd. (NYSE: STP), a China-based solar energy company, priced 26.4 million American depositary shares at $15 per share on Dec. 14, 2005.  The shares closed the first day at $21.20, a  + 40% increase from the offering price.  

For the first nine months of 2005, revenues ($137 million) were 188% higher than in the same time period in 2004.  Suntech’s lower labor costs are a big advantage in developing and manufacturing  solar cells and modules for electric power.
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Adobe Photoshop Image Southern California Edison (SCE) and Stirling Energy Systems, Inc. signed a 20-year power agreement,
subject to the California Public Utilities Commission
approval, that could result in construction of a massive,
4,500-acre solar project generating station in
Southern California. When completed, the proposed
power station would be the world.s largest solar facility,
capable of producing more electricity than all other
U.S. solar projects combined.
The agreement calls for the development of a 500-
megaWatt solar project planned 70 miles northeast of
Los Angeles. The project could also be expanded to
850 megaWatts. Initially, Stirling would build a onemegaWatt
test facility and subsequently, a 20,000-dish
array would be constructed near Victorville, CA,
during a four-year period.
Stirling dish technology has been tested for 20 years and the SCE-Stirling project represents its first major application in the
commercial electricity generation field.
In reference to the 20-year agreement, Alan Fohrer, SCE chief executive officer, said, .The contract (with Stirling) requires
no state subsidy and provides favorable pricing for ratepayers because tests have shown the Stirling dish technology can
produce electricity at significantly lower costs than other solar technologies..
In the photo above, a Stirling dish model is shown which is part of a Power Project currently operating at the Sandia National
Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In operation, the Stirling dish technology converts thermal energy to electricity
by using a mirror array to focus the sun.s rays on the receiver end of a Stirling engine. The internal side of the receivers then
heats hydrogen gas which expands. The pressure created by expanding gas drives a pistol, crank shaft, and drive shaft
assembly much like those found in internal combustion engines but without igniting the gas. The drive shaft turns a small
electricity generator. The entire energy conversion process takes place within a canister the size of an oil barrel. The
process requires no water and the engine is emission-free.
Tests conducted by SCE and the Sandia National Laboratories have shown that the Stirling dish technology is almost twice as
efficient as other solar technologies. These include parabolic troughs which use the sun.s beat to create steam that drives
turbines similar to those found in conventional power plants and photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into
electricity by means of semiconducting materials like those found in computer chips. (Photo is courtesy of Sandia National
Laboratory.) +

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 (June 2004) Ameralego, Portugal: Giant Solar Energy Site Planned Portugal’s General Directorate of Energy will provide $ 313 million in funding to place 64 MW of solar panels.
World Solar Energy News
www.SolarBuzz.com,
May 6, 2004
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 (April 2004) TrueSolar Solutions and Global Solar Energy plan world’s largest photovoltaic central  generating station near Barstow, California.   Southern California Edison (SCE) has contracted to buy five megaWatts of power from the plant to be built on a 40-acre site.  Construction of the plant is expected to begin in the first half of 2004, with commercial operation planned by the year’s end.  Annual energy production is expected to be approximately 11 million kiloWatt-hours (kWh).
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 (April 2004) Solar Energy Start-up Attacks PV Wafer

Solacix, a start-up in Los Gatos, CA targets methods to produce higher efficiency PV cells at dramatically decreased manufacturing costs by using thinner wafers, reducing sawing process loss and increasing minority carrier lifetimes. The target is to produce 21% efficient cells which will have costs in the $1.50 per peak Watt range by the end of 2006.

The company has four patents pending and will produce revenues in the fourth quarter of 2004; they will have a manufacturing capacity of 8 MW annually.

SolarAccess.com, December 3, 2003
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 (March 2004) Sanyo electric Company will double its solar cell production  at its plant in Osaka Prefucture in Japan by January 2005.  The expansion will make it the second largest solar cell manufacturer in Japan. With Shimane  Sanyo Industrial Co., a Sanyo subsidiary, capable of producing 63 megaWatts,  the Sanyo Group will be able to increase its annual capacity to 133 megaWatts.  Sanyo says it will manufacture the industry’s highest cell conversion efficiency 19.5% in mass production.
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 (March 2004) Astropower files for bankruptcy in early February 2003.  The company has also reached an agreement to sell “certain” of its U.S. business assets to GE Energy (formerly GE Power Systems).    The transaction with GE Energy will be subject to competitive bidding and Bankruptcy Court approval. The Company said filing for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy code of the U.S. is at least partially designed to facilitate the sale of assets of GE Energy.
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 (Oct. 2003) Sharp inaugurates its first U.S. solar module assembly plant. This is the first such plant outside Japan; the plant will be located in Memphis, Tennessee.  The factory, based at Sharp Manufacturing Company of America, is assembling 165 Watt, 167 Watt and 185 Watt solar panels for residential and commercial installations. Initial production capacity of the plant is 20 megaWatts.  Production will be expanded as demand is increased.
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 (Oct. 2003) Shanghai, China reports a $1.21 billion budget for solar energy projects over the next five years.  The National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Science & Technology are jointly launching this five year “Lightning Project.”  Upon completion of this project, expectations are to have an additional 300 Megawatts  of installed of solar capacity.
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(Sept. 2003) MSK Corporation of Tokyo opens world’s largest solar panel  factory in Nagano, Japan.  The 100 megaWatt peak-capacity facility can produce up to 45,000 solar modules per month.  It has the capability to handle solar cells down to 0.2 mm in thickness.  Typical solar cells are 0.3 mm thick. Reducing thickness helps to bring down the cost of solar energy.

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(Sept. 2003) Sharp Corporation launches a pair of off-grid Small  Home System photovoltaic power generating systems.These systems are aimed at regions of Asia, the Middle East and Africa where grid-supplied electricity is unavailable.  Initial monthly production of 25,000 units is planned; both 80 Watt and 123 Watt module based systems will be manufactured.
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 (August 2003) PowerLight will  install a 675 kiloWatt photovoltaic system atop of the Moscone Center in San Francisco. The Company won the bid at a cost of $7.4 million.  San Francisco will be the largest municipal deployer of solar energy in the United States.  President Dan Shugar of PowerLight stated that cost for the panels and accompanying components are about half of what they were give years ago.  The California Public Utilities Commission also “brightened the spotlight” for solar in 2001 when it agreed to subsidize roughly half the cost of such an installation as the one being done at the Moscone Center.
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(July 2003) Nanosys, Inc. sets goal to commercialize nanocomposite solar cell technology. The Company has signed exclusive licensing agreements for world-wide rights to intellectual properties covering the materials and technologies of nanocomposite solar cells developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University. Since high costs of traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells make solar energy substantially more expensive, Nanosys believes that the nanocomposite solar cell technology  can offer high efficiency, low cost and conformal solar cells modules that can easily be integrated into any location where energy is desired. By incorporating inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials into a flexible hot-matrix and using roll-to-roll processing to fabricate the final solar cell, nanocomposite solar technology marries the high efficiency of inorganic semiconductor crystals with the processability of plastics.
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(September,02)  ATS Automation Tooling Systems of Canada develops solar cells that will slash cost of solar power. The company says it plans to start production of the new cells in 2003 and make enough within a year to supply electricity for the equivalent of 6,000 homes. ATS’s photovoltaic technology, called Spheral Solar Technology, will use tiny beads bonded in an aluminum foil. The cells will use a fraction of the silicon in current solar cells, thus at least halving the cost of power generation. ATS Chief Executive Klaus Woerner says the cells can be put into roofing tiles or shingles or into factory walls and cars. Canada’s government is funding ATS with C$29.5 million to help start production. (09-02BD78-11)
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Global Environment Facility (GEF) says market for photovoltaic solar energy is growing by 14 percent a year. The GEF is the largest source of international financial assistance for renewable energy development in emerging countries. GEF has provided more than US$200 million for projects; its goals are to provide new energy services to one billion of the world’s poor by 2015. At this time, Japan, Germany and the U.S. account for 71 percent usage of the world’s solar energy; when reviewing energy figures for the entire world, solar power holds only a 0.1 percent share. The U.N. World Summit on Sustainable Development convened in Johannesburg on August 26th. The summit agenda included proposals to develop and disseminate renewable energy technologies and thereby increase the renewable market share to between five and ten percent by 2010.

The U.S.- based Solar Energy Industries Association says that solar research has cut pricing so that their expectations for the world to see photovoltaic panels competing with natural gas-fired generation are within five to eight years.

References:
1 Platts Metals, 07/29&30, as reported in High Tech Materials Monthly, “The China Corner,” 08/01/02
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(September,2002) Global Environment Facility (GEF) says market for photovoltaic solar energy is growing by 14 percent a year. The GEF is the largest source of international financial assistance for renewable energy development in emerging countries. GEF has provided more than US$200 million for projects; its goals are to provide new energy services to one billion of the world’s poor by 2015. At this time, Japan, Germany and the U.S. account for 71 percent usage of the world’s solar energy; when reviewing energy figures for the entire world, solar power holds only a 0.1 percent share. The U.N. World Summit on Sustainable Development convened in Johannesburg on August 26th. The summit agenda included proposals to develop and disseminate renewable energy technologies and thereby increase the renewable market share to between five and ten percent by 2010.
The U.S.- based Solar Energy Industries Association says that solar research has cut pricing so that their expectations for the world to see photovoltaic panels competing with natural gas-fired generation are within five to eight years.
References:
1 Platts Metals, 07/29&30, as reported in High Tech Materials Monthly, “The China Corner,” 08/01/02
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(December 2001) Potential Energy:The costs of renewable technologies will be reduced, making them much more prevalent in the total mix. World demand for energy is projected to grow from 400+ GWhours now to over 700 GWhours in 2010. Photovoltaic energy costs per kWh are projected to decrease by 40-50%. Ten to 15 trillion dollars are expected to be invested in renewable energy in the next 20 years.
from Red Herring, November 2001, pp. 60-61
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(December 2001) San Francisco voters OK solar power expansion: Voters approved a $100 million bond issue, allowing the city to fund solar projects for the city and county owned buildings. They also endorsed a measure to allows issuance of bonds for renewable projects without further voter approval. The resultant demand is projected to show significant growth which may double from the 25% annual growth in the last 10 years. Installed solar costs are about 12 cents per kWh while wind is only 4.5 cents per kWh, but solar is far less expensive than the California grid rates which have been as high as $3/kWh experienced in the past.
From: Minneapolis Star Tribune, November 8, 2001, p A13
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(June 2001) ‘Solar Generation’:A blueprint for growing the PV market.Worldwide installed capacity of photovoltaic systems has surpassed 1,000 MWp (peak). Projections place the European installed base at over 3,000 MWp by 2010. As an industry, PV will then provide over 2 million jobs in production, installation and maintenance.
Renewable Energy World, May 2001, www.jxj.com
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(December  2001) AstroPower acquires Spain’s PV supplier Atersa which has a 50% stake in AstraSolar. AstraSolar is supplying APex solar cells for a 13 MW electric power plant in Murcia, Spain. The solar power plant will be able to generate up to 4% of the total peak load for its region. This PV Power plant should be four times larger than any photovoltaic plant currently operating.
Adobe Photoshop ImageThe market for portable power supplies in the US is projected to increase 7.2 percent per year through 2005 to $10.7 billion. Among the major established products, secondary batteries hold the best prospects going forward, given their leadership position in growth markets such as high-end IT devices. Demand for primary batteries, exposed to more mature product markets and less potential for technological upgrade, will grow at a below-average pace. Portable and micro fuel cells are expected to be sold in commercially significant volumes by mid-decade. On the downside, portable power supply markets will be adversely impacted by slower economic growth than prevailed during the latter 1990s. (Data is from ‘Portable Power Supplies’ by The Freedonia Group, Inc., Tel: 440-684-9600.) + (12-01 BD69-12)
Banc of America reports a strong 2002 outlook for the solar power industry. This outlook was corroborated by numerous industry players at the Munich Solar Energy Trade Show. The report states, “Solar power is one of the few end markets currently experiencing rapid growth and with healthy visibility.” “The Power of Growth: Energy Technology Weekly”, the Banc of America Securities Energy Technology industry weekly, 10-29-01
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Adobe Photoshop ImageAccording to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy, the solar energy market has been growing at 25% annually for the last decade. On March 21, 2002, the U.S. Senate passed a bill requiring all investor-owned electric utilities to obtain at least 10 percent of their electricity from renewable sources such as solar energy. Currently, less than 2 percent of electricity comes from renewable sources. Instead of building solar stations themselves, the utilities may choose to purchase renewable energy credits from other companies in the open market.(05-02 BD74-9)
(May 2002) Nanosys Incorporated announces breakthrough in solar element manufacturing. The team led by Dr. Paul Alivisatos has discovered a novel nanomaterial for the efficient production of solar energy. Dr. Alivisatos states, “Traditional silicon-based photovoltaic elements are expensive to manufacture in large volumes, requiring extremely high temperature, high vacuum and numerous lithographic steps. That’s why we chose to pursue the hybrid nanocomposite approach, incorporating inorganic nanorods into organic semiconductor films. The nanorod/polymer hybrid elements can be mass-produced under ambient conditions without any of these complicated and expensive steps. By growing nanorods with a specific diameter, we can also precisely control the band gap of the nanocomposite, adjusting it for optimal absorption of ambient light; that’s not possible to do with traditional semiconducting materials.”
Professor Keith Barnham of Imperial College, London and a pioneer in the use of quantum well nanostructures in high efficiency solar cells, commented on the discovery made by Dr. Alivisatos and his team, “There has been much interest in the possibility of making cheap, plastic solar cells. The efficiencies of these plastic-cells, however, are currently far too low for commercial exploitation. Professor Alivisatos’ group has made a breakthrough by incorporating nanorods into polymer devices, so as to give them many features of conventional, high-efficiency crystalline cells.” His optimism is continued in his next statement when he said, “I think this hybrid approach is a most promising way to achieve the efficiences necessary to make plastic solar cells commerciallyviable. It would help to make solar electricity competitive with fossil fuels.”
Adobe Photoshop ImageFrost and Sullivan’s “Analysis of Renewable Energy Markets in Europe” states that solar PV will exhibit the fastest growth over the next two decades. Manufacturers are investing heavily in new production technologies. Galvanized by government incentives and subsidies for green energy, the introduction of green certificates and green tariffs and the decline in installation and generation costs, the EU’s installed renewables capacity, excluding hydropower plants, is set to reach 109.22 GW in 2010. “The European renewable energy industry is poised for robust growth, albeit showing significant variations in performance. Comprising wind power, solar photovoltaics, biomass power, small hydropower and geothermal power, the overall renewables market amassed $4.6 billion in 2001 based on the installation of all new renewable energy equipment in Europe,” states company analyst Harald Thaler.(04-02 BD73-7)
Global Solar helps commission one of the world’s largest photovoltaic PV power stations. The 1.4 megaWatt ground-mounted system, which converts sunlight directly into electricity, will be expanded to 2.4 megaWatts of generating capacity in 2002. For the solar array, Global Solar utilized modules made of various PV technologies, including crystaline-silicon, thin-film amorphous-silicon, and thin-film cadmium-telluride. Thin-film copper-indium-gallium selenide modules could be used in the future.
The PV power station is located near Tucson Electric Power Co.’s (TEP) Springerville Generating Station in northeastern Arizona. Southwest Energy Solutions installed the solar collector panels and support structure. Global Solar and TEP worked on system design. Global Solar oversees daily operations.(04-02 BD73-7)
Germany’s PV financing schemes and the market
By 30 September 2001, Germany’s two financing schemes for photovoltaics had encouraged the installation of over 100 MWp of PV, within the country. Module production had increased rapidly. The German industry had created over 3800 jobs by the end of 2000. However, Germany was still a major importer of PV despite the increase in production.(03-02 BD72-13
Renewable Energy World
January-February 2002
www.jxj.com/magsandj/rew/news
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Building the market for PV in Africa
There is a huge potential commercial off-grid market for PV in the sub-Saharan region, although for the most part, we have yet to learn how to tap it. “
Half a dozen multimillion dollar projects designed to catalyse the market have, seemingly, failed,” writes Mark Hankins, “and exploitation of the market has been disappointingly slow.”
Renewable Energy World, July— August 2001
www.jxj.com/magsandj/
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A blueprint for growing the PV market
The solar electricity market is booming. In 2000, cumulative installed capacity of PV systems around the world surpassed the landmark figure of 1000 MWp. At the same time, global shipments of PV cells and modules have been growing at an average annual rate of 33% for the past few years. Now the European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace have collaborated on producing a long-term analysis of the global solar electricity market up until 2020, with projections up to 2040. (03-02 BD72-13)
Renewable Energy World,September—October 2001
www.jxj.com/magsand j/rew/news
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Adobe Photoshop ImageArizona Public Service is helping solar/photovoltaics to grow. They are already selling one MW to the grid and plan to double this by second quarter of 2002. Composite Power Corporation is considering a large solar power generation plant in Nevada that could produce in excess of 100 MW.
Although the solar industry expects that solar power may rise as high as 5,000 MW per year by 2020, the Department of Energy (DOE) only projects 3,200 MW for the same time period. Currently, solar power contributes 0.02 to the grid. It still costs about 20 cents/kWh to generate electricity; this equates to a cost equivalent of approximately four times as much as the electricity produced from fossil or nuclear fuels. (Data in chart is from Industrial Information Resources, Inc.) + (Jan. 2002, BD 70-9)
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Adobe Photoshop Image Siemens Solar Industries L.P. of California provides the panels which are powering the largest solar electric roadway lighting project. The installation is on the roadway to the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Headquarters Campus in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The roadway is illuminated using the Solar Electric Power Company’s (SEPCOTM) 200 Watt Solar Electric Lighting Systems.
In other news, Shell Renewables (Shell), Siemens AG (Siemens) and E.ON Energie AG (E.ON) announced that Shell intends to acquire all the shares held by Siemens under Shell Solar GmbH. The combined business, to be 100% owned by Shell, will be known as Shell Solar. The new entity will have a fifteen per cent share of the global PV market.(03-02 BD72-9)
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Duke Solar LLC’s chief scientist, Roland Winston, receives Farrington Daniels Award for outstanding intellectual leadership in renewable energy from the International Solar Energy Society. The societies highest honor was given to Dr. Winston who has pioneered work in non-imaging solar optics that has been proven to concentrate sunlight at more than 84,000 times the natural level of Earth-surface sunlight (02-02 BD71-8)
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