Miscellaneous/Hydrogen 040513


Miscellaneous/Hydrogen
 (June 2004) State to get $ 50 million for hydrogen fuel work
Three University of California campuses, plus Sandia/Livermore and PolyFuel will share $ 50 million of the DOE $350 million nationwide grant package to do research on making hydrogen fuel available by 2015.
The Desert Sun, Apr 28, 2004, p. A9
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(April 2004) Official: ‘Hydrogen Highway’ in sight

California’s Environmental Protection Secretary, Terry Tamminen, told state lawmakers on Wednesday, February 25, 2004 that Governor Schwarzenegger was pledged to build hydrogen fueling stations every 20 miles along major highways by 2010. The purpose of the stations is to provide hydrogen for fuel cell powered vehicles which will replace IC engines. According to Tamminen, the hydrogen fueling stations will not cost the state much money.

California Energy Commissioner, Jim Boyd, said that the cost is too high. Toyota’s Bill Reinert said that any promises of cheaper, more efficient and longer-lasting fuel cells to power autos is premature.

S. David Freeman, a top energy aid for former Governor Davis, said that hydrogen must come from biomass, solar or other renewable energy sources , “otherwise we’re just putting coal in the tank.”
The Desert Sun
February 26, 2004, p. A 11
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 (Decmeber2003) The Hydrogen Hallucination

This story does great service in identifying that “...hydrogen is not      a source of energy.” Too many people cannot see that it takes energy stored in another form such as natural gas to provide the hydrogen fuel. Not only is the natural gas a supply of hydrogen, it also contains carbon which if removed in the production of hydrogen, contributes oxides which are detrimental to the environment unless sequestered. Not only does it take energy to strip the hydrogen from the natural gas, it takes more energy to sequester the carbon.

Unfortunately, the author looses credibility when extending the ‘source concept’ to petroleum in saying, “This notion of hydrogen as a storage device is vastly different from petroleum, which is clearly a source of energy. “Whether a liter of petroleum, or a liter of hydrogen, neither is a fundamental source of energy, but rather a transporter of energy. Rather, the position should be that petroleum is an earth-stored resource from which energy can be directly extracted, whereas hydrogen is not found in nature and must be ‘produced’ from other materials such as water using energy from another source. The original earth energy source in the case of petroleum was solar energy which through photosynthesis and biological breakdown created the plants which over millions of years became petroleum, or coal or natural gas. Mankind neither has the technology or the time to replace petroleum, but must look to other ‘sources’ as the petroleum is depleted. Unfortunately stored sources beyond petroleum, natural gas and coal do not exist, requiring future energy to be harvested from sunlight as it arrives on the earth. Renewable resources such as bio fuels are produced from solar energy. Wind, hydro, and tidal ‘sources’ are also the products of solar energy. Of course photovoltaics in either direct or indirect conversion produces hydrogen from the sun. Geothermal and nuclear are non-solar, earth available stores or ‘sources’ of energy which could be converted to hydrogen stored energy.

Source: www.solaraccess.com/news/story?storyid=5497&p=1
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Broad Spectrum(09-02BD78-3-6)
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All-Hydrogen Transportation Eyed by Iceland
The government of Iceland is backing a consortium named New Energy Ltd; which includes DaimlerChrysler, Norsk Hydro, Shell Hydrogen and VistOrka. This consortium seeks to transform Iceland into a hydrogen-based economy by taking advantage of the country’s 200 teraWatt hours (tWh) of geothermal energy and the 30 TWh of hydroelectric potential.(07-02BD76-12)
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Logistics Fuel Processor
Air Force requirements for overseas bases for 1,100 Airmen requires 4-750 kW diesel generators and 4,000 gallons of fuel per day. To reduce the mass, a fuel processor has been prototyped which will generate hydrogen from jet fuel to power a fuel cell. The total system is anticipated to reduce the deployment airlift requirements by 16% while reducing emissions, noise levels and the infrared signature. Power generation sustainment costs are anticipated to go down by 50%. The processor uses steam reforming with micro channel technology.(07-02BD76-12)
AFRL Technology Horizons
June 2002, p.31
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Quantum’s TriShield10TM receives German TUV regulatory approval for its 10,000 -psi (700) hydrogen storage cylinder. The higher pressure means that the operating time of a fuel cell is increased by 118 percent compared to that with a standard 3,600-psi tank. (See BD issue 69-1 for more detailed information.)(04-02 BD73-6)
Hydrogen 10k(12-01 BD69-2-3)

BD